WILD9 Wilderness Management Seminar

The WILD9 Wilderness Management Seminar convened over twenty individuals from around the globe from 1-3 November 2009 to share experiences and best-practices in managing wilderness.   The training was hosted by The WILD Foundation(USA), the Wilderness Action Group (South Africa) and the US Forest Service.  The course was certified by the University of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and The University of Montana (USA).  View more images >

The Seminar provided participants with the tools and resources to understand how wilderness in relevant in their nation and culture; confidently promote wilderness conservation; better manage their wilderness; and, develop submissions for the designation of wilderness areas. After completing the course, participants had the framework necessary to prepare policy and management plans and understand how to develop wilderness management programs for wilderness areas in their respective countries. The information and resources on this page provide an online tutorial to assist wilderness managers to achieve these learning objective.

The purpose of the Seminar was:

  • To continue to internationalize the concept and management of wilderness and extend the training conducted at 7WWC(South Africa, 2001) and 8WWC (Anchorage, Alaska, 2005);
  • To offer introductory wilderness management training, creating awareness for its protection; and,
  • To prepare participants for their future role as Wilderness Ambassadors.

The content of the Seminar included:

  • Wilderness concept and history;
  • Defining wilderness, the IUCN categories and the need for wilderness legislation;
  • Wilderness values, benefits and ecosystem services;
  • Wilderness planning, management principles and monitoring techniques;
  • Wilderness education and awareness strategies for change; and,
  • Challenges and threats – protecting the wilderness resource and ecosystems.

Course Instructors:

Drummond Densham – Director of Wilderness Action Group in South Africa
Ilan Lax – Environ. Lawyer, & Chairman/Director of Wilderness Action Group, SA
Ralph Swain – US Forest Service, Regional Program Manager, Denver, CO USA
Christina Boston – US Forest Service, Wilderness Program Specialist, Washington DC, USA
Liese Dean – US Forest Service, Wilderness Program Coordinator, Stanley, Idaho, USA


Wilderness, Did you know? Facts and information about wilderness in the US.

History of the Wilderness Act, USA, by Ralph Swain.

Images of Wilderness in Colorado

Wilderness Management Principles

Wilderness Values, Benefits, Uses and Threats

An overview of wilderness management resources

Discussion Papers

Drummond Densham, Managing Wilderness Experience and Wilderness Monitoring, Discussion paper.

Drummon Densham, Wilderness Stewardship, Discussion paper.

Al Koss, The Why & What and Historical Aspects of Wilderness – Updated 11/2009.

Wilderness Education Planning Guide, Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center.

Wilderness Management Principles, Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center.


Ralph Swain, Wilderness Legislative Guidebook– R2 example.

John Anarella, Flat Tops Wilderness Education Plan – Colorado example.

Sonja Kruger, Wilderness Area Management Plan 2006-20011 for uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site.


Dr. David Cole, “Naturalness and Beyond: Protected Area Stewardship in an Era of Global Environmental Change,” first published in The George Wright Forum, Volume 25, Number 1, Copyright 2008 The George Wright Society.

Dr. David Cole, Wilderness Threats Matrix

Malcolm Draper, In Quest of African Wilderness,” USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-27. 2003

Maretha Shroyer, Alan Watson & Andrew Muir, “Wilderness Research in South Africa,” International Journal of Wilderness, April 2003, Vol 9, No 1.

Greg Hansen, “Contemporary Wilderness and American Indian Cultures,” International Journal of Wilderness, August 2007, Volume 13 No 2.

Kendall Clark & Susan Kozacek, “How Do Your Personal Wilderness Values Rate?International Journal of Wilderness, March 1997, Volume 3, No. 1.

Dr. Ken Cordell et. al,  “How Do American’s View Wilderness – Part 1” Internet Research Information Series, January, 2008.

Trista Patterson, “The Economic Value of Ecosystem Services from and for Wilderness,” The Wild Planet Project (The WILD Foundation),  2007.

Patricio Robles Gil, “El Carmen – The First Wilderness Designation in Latin America,” International Journal of Wilderness, August 2006, Volume 12 No. 2.

R.A. Mittermeier et al,” Wilderness and Biodiversity Conservation,” PNAS, 2 September 2003, Volume 100  No. 18.

Nigel Dudley (Editor),  IUCN: Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories, 2008.

Jamie Rojo,” The Hidden Wildness of Mexico,” International Journal of Wilderness, August 2009, Volume 15 No 2.

Robert Poirier and Dr. David Ostergren, “Evicting People from Nature: Indigenous Land Rights and National Parks in Australia, Russia, and the United StatesNatural Resources Journal, volume 42.

Harvey Locke & Phillip Dearden, “Rethinking Protected area Categories and the New Paradigm,” Environmental Conservation, 32(1), 2005 Foundation for Environmental Conservation.

Harvey Locke & Brendan Mackey, “The Nature of Climate Change: Reunite International Climate Change Mitigation Efforts with Biodiversity Conservation and Wilderness Protection,” International Journal of Wilderness, August 2009, Vol 15, No 2.

WILD9, 2nd Native Lands and Wilderness Council: Supporting and Enhancing Indigenous Management of Native Lands. Update: April 2009

Further Reading

Our Wilderness: America’s Common Ground. Doug Scott. 2009. Fulcrum Publishing.

Conservation Refuges. Mark Dowie. 2009. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Wilderness Management: Stewardship and Protection of Resources and Values. C.P. Dawson and J.C. Hendee. 2008. Fulcrum Publishing.

A Handbook on International Wilderness Law and Policy. Cyril F. Kormos, Editor. 2008. Fulcrum Publishing.

Protecting Wild Nature on Native Lands.  Julie Cajune, Terry Tanner and Vance Martin, Editors. 2008.  Fulcrum Publishing.

Green Republican: John Saylor and the Preservation of America’s Wilderness. Thomas G. Smith. 2006. University of Pittsburgh Press.

Wilderness Forever: Howard Zahniser and the Path to the Wilderness Act. Mark W. T. Harvey. 2005. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

The Multiple Values of Wilderness. Cordell, H. Ken, John C. Bergstrom, and J.M. Bowker (Principal Authors and Editors). 2005. Venture Publishing, Inc. State College, PA.

The Enduring Wilderness. Protecting our Natural Heritage through the Wilderness Act. Doug Scott. 2004. Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, Colorado.

Wayne Aspinall and the Shaping of the American West. Stephen C. Schulte. 2002. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.


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